Problems of Oriental Philosophy
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
THE PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTION OF UNITY

ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTION OF UNITY OF BEING IN THE LIGHT OF MODERN SCIENCE

Zumrud Guluzade
Doctor of Philosophy


THE PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTION OF UNITY
Orientation of modern society towards a unipolar social and economic system, re-enforcing the tendency towards globalization, naturally s and stimulates the correlation processes in the integration of local cultures, particularly those comprising the ideology of spiritual culture as well.
The situation proposes re-comprehension and re-appraisal of the existing relations and their scientific interpretation, search for new optimal ways of their mutual integration into something whole, global, in other words, into ways to the unity of being or otherwise, argumentation for the refusal of globalization as deprivation of the local cultures from their originality and consequently their existence in that capacity.
The globalization and anti-globalization tendencies historically accompanying the development of culture have intensified especially in the present time. The latter is the reason for the activation of search for a philosophical model or models of the world-outlook of the given time, search for a common methodological conception of understanding of being, general and special laws of its existence and development, which is the task of philosophy as well as individual sciences, and requires the unification of their potentialities in the search process.

The above-stated has conditioned the selection of the topic of the speech presented to your attention.
Taking into account the ambiguity of the interpretation of the content of the conceptual- categorical mechanism of philosophy and initial positions of individual philosophers when interpreting the concept being, we consider it suitable to begin our presentation by stating our starting points.
We proceed from the recognition of
1. Philosophy as a universal phenomenon indivisible into regions of spiritual culture of humanity;
2. Its classical definition as a doctrine about the main principles (bases, laws) of being presented as a unity of material and ideal sources taking into account that definition of the content of the concepts “material” and “ideal” has been distinguished not unambiguously in the history of spiritual culture. Depending on the world outlook of individual philosophers and schools following them, “the ideal” could pose as God, as an absolute spirit, absolute idea, feeling, intellect and willpower of man; the total of those concepts (their priorities are specially determined by the doctrines of individual philosophers or philosophical schools and trends). Historically the definition of the interaction between God – the Creator and the material world – the world of creations has been distinguished by a particular ambiguity;
3. Historical co-existence of the conceptions of materialism, idealism separating and contrasting the material and the ideal (as primary, secondary and derivative) and dualism considering the parallel existence of the material and ideal along with the presence of the conception of philosophy of unity considering the unity of material and ideal beginning as the nature of the initial cause and basis of being;
4. Virtual unity and organic correlation of sciences and philosophies studying being in its diversity and integrity, and mutually correcting their own ideas through history;
5. Of the achievements of modern society, in particular its discoveries in the research of micro-realm, the encoded nature of substance, theory of multitude in mathematics, that is “fuzzy logics”, alteration of the ideas about chaos, recognition of purposeful self-organization of being with synergy, etc., forcing to doubt about sufficiently “unfuzzy” or resisting ideas of scientific and ideological plan.
In the light of the stated positions we consider it suitable to discuss the place, role and significance of the conception of philosophy of unity in the light of scientific achievements (including the mysterious ones, those failing to provide a rational explanation of phenomenon yet) and perspectives of social and cultural development at the beginning of the XXI century when global and anti-global processes have become vital, and a consensus between West and East is being sought for in different fields of social and spiritual lives.
In our opinion, as both a philosophical conception and an interdisciplinary methodology of science the conception of unity reflects more adequately the dialectical development of being, and is more convincing, and above all, more productive a philosophical methodology in further researching of nature, different levels of recognition process, society, selection of humanistic and democratic orientation of social development rather than idealistic, materialistic and dualistic conceptions.
Addressing the presented problem as a subject of the joint discussion by the representatives of philosophy, natural sciences, sciences and humanities is vital due to the modern state of philosophy which is characterized with ambiguity (down to negation) and contradiction in the interpretation of its very subject, and its main categories, criteria when interpreting and assessing the histories and the present day of the philosophical cultures in different regions and especially it is vital when studying the spiritual culture in the post-soviet area, where for many decades the selection of philosophical conception of science was strictly regulated by political ideology.
Presenting the conception of unity as the subject of discussion we proceed from the history of philosophical cultures of the East and West where in different monistic forms (gilosoism, pan-animism, pan-psychism, pantheism, holism and so on and so forth) the given conception has existed since the ancient times up to present as a basis or the structural element of wold-outlook ideas.
Our statement is especially guided also by the experience of the history of philosophy of the Islamic region which, despite the scientific objectivity and scientific ethics, is ignored for different reasons in the related literature.
The conception presented by us for discussion as a conception of interdisciplinary scientific and theoretical methodology, is in essence distinguished from the interpretation of unity in the religious philosophy with an orientation to Christianity of orthodox persuasion, which is developing in modern science and denies the unity.
At present there is no doubt that the modern level of scientific development requires the review and correction of the content of many fundamental concepts of both science and philosophy, which is the re-current and historically-repeated manifestation of the universal law of the recognition process.
Taking into account the corroboration of the objectivity of the conception of unity of material and ideal of the philosophy of unity as the nature of original cause and sources of existence and heuristic potential of the given conception through modern scientific discoveries including Lotfi A. Zadeh’s theory widely known in the international scientific arena and his conception on “fuzzy logics” and so on, in our opinion, its selection as a common philosophical methodology of the process of scientific recognition (i.e. of interdisciplinary methodology) is likely more expedient in comparison with the above-mentioned conceptions of idealism, materialism and dualism.
In last March this problem was the subject of a broad scientific discussion at the scientific and theoretical seminar participated by the philosophers and representatives of sciences. The two-day seminar with more than 30 presentations and speeches on its agenda was organized by the Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences with an active support of the Science Development Foundation under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Presidium of the Azerbaijan.National Academy of Sciences.
Correlation of the philosophical conception of dual unity of the material and ideal with the sciences was considered in the speeches of physicists, mathematicians, economists, doctors-psychologists, Doctors and Candidates of Sciences representing Azerbaijan and foreign sciences alongside with the philosophers (the conference materials were published and placed in the internet: www.joph.azersayt.com).
In last June this problem was the subject of discussion of the round table titled “The Conception of Unity as a Methodology of Interdisciplinary Scientific Research and Lotfi A. Zadeh’s Theory” and organized by the Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law.
During the discussion it was emphasized that the doctrine about the unity of being in different manifestations has existed since the ancient times up to present and presents the logical and theoretical reflection of objective universal laws, the presence of being in different theoretical forms, including Lotfi A. Zadeh’s “fuzzy” logics as well. When assessing the significance of Aristotel’s logics and Lotfi A. Zadeh’s logics, opinions varied. Part of speakers supported the admission of equal priority in the process of cognition of both Aristotel’s “unfuzzy” logics and Lotfi A. Zadeh’s “fuzzy” logics which mutually supplement each other in understanding common universal and relatively partial laws of being as manifested in the total of its unity and integrity. It was underlined that the permanent changeableness (movement, development of being through time) reflected in the total of its manifestations, conditions multi-planned (theoretical and practical) vitality of creative potential, laid in “fuzzy logics” oriented towards understanding reality in diversity of correlations and mutual transmissions of its manifestations.
It was also stated that it is important to revise the existing definitions of chaos, its definition as a phenomenon, the inner laws of which have not been understood by man (don’t go into the frames of its ideas about order and system) and will never be understood to the end due to the unpredictability of its changes, as will the cosmos never be understood whose changes combining logical and coincidental are nevertheless subordinated to the main principles or laws of its existence.
It was underlined that neither “fuzzy” nor “unfuzzy” logics has so far disproved the universal nature of the laws of dialectics as a doctrine about more general lawful relations of being and cognition.
According to the general opinion of the discussion participants Lotfi A. Zadeh’s “fuzzy” logics is vital in understanding any sphere of existence and can be used as a research method in any science independent of its subject matter. Even before it was formulated by Lotfi A. Zadeh as a theoretical system, it operated in the process of understanding in one form and degree or another.
Lotfi A. Zadeh’s merit was in the fact that he managed to raise it to the level of interdisciplinary scientific methodology actively opening new horizons of understanding of being.
To sum up our speech we would like to re-emphasize that the philosophical conception of unity corresponds more to the idea of globalization, the idea of unity of society. Dialogue as a path to mutual understanding, mutual integration of different ethnic, national and regional cultures, is a natural real path to unity at a high spiritual, moral and intellectual level. In the path to this ideal it is required to follow ethical norms, objectivity and respect when interpreting the past and present of the cultures of different geographical, ethnic and religious regions. In this connection we would like to mention the inadequacy and ethical unacceptability of elucidation and assessment of the roles and significance of the philosophy of the region with the Islamic culture in the context of the history of universal philosophy as well as inadequacy of the place provided for the philosophy of the Islamic region in the system of modern education. The above-stated, both in the past and at present conditioned by the tendencies concentrating on the West and East in the social and cultural development of society, can and must be overcome through a dialogue and searching for consensuses not wounding the dignity of individual cultures. For this purpose a systematic work is being carried out at the initiative of the Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law. It is reflected in the published researches, particularly in the international scientific and theoretical journal “The Problems of Oriental Philosophy” issued since 1966 (The journal is published in Azerbaijani and Russian with a broad summary in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, English, German, French) and in the international scientific and theoretical conference on the Problems of Research and Teaching of Philosophy of Islamic Region in the Context of World Philosophy organized with the support of UNESCO.
The path to globalization lies through mutual understanding of and respect to the dignity of local cultures in the system of unified global culture. The achievements in this field, undoubtedly, will become decisive factors for humanization of society, establishment of society with a Human face. It is not a coincidence that at the beginning of the XXI century in the context of globalization, modern scientific discoveries and search for consensus among philosophical sciences the ethics with its categories Good and Responsibility acquires a special vitality.
It may be necessary either to refuse the scientific achievements in the field of studying micro-particles, the encoded nature of substance, synergy, “fuzzy logics”, modern theories about chaos and so on and so forth, or at least agree to the expediency of consideration of monistic conception of unity of material and ideal of the philosophy of unity as a common philosophical interdisciplinary methodology of the science of a new time

Author : oriental | Date: 6-02-2012, 18:37 | Views: 0