Problems of Oriental Philosophy
A History of Islamic Philosophy


Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition


Chapter One. The Legacy of Greece, Alexandria, and the Orient

I.                    The Near Eastern Scene in the Seventh Century

II.                 The Translations of Philosophical Texts

III.               Neo-Platonic Elements: The Apocryphal Theologia Aristotelis and the Liber de Causis

IV.              Persian and Indian Influences


Chapter Two. Early Political and Religious Tensions

I.                    The Religio-Political Factions

II.                 The Rise of Islamic Scholasticism (Kalam)


Chapter Three. Beginnings of Systematic Philosophical Writing in the Ninth Century

I.                    The First Creative Philosophical Writer in Islam: Al-Kindi

II.                 The Rise of Naturalism and the Challenge to Islamic Dogma: Ibn Al-Rawandi and Al-Razi


Chapter Four. The Further development of Islamic Neo-Platonism

I.                    Al-Farabi

II.                 Ibn Sina


Chapter Five. Neo-Pythagoreanism and the Popluarization of the Philosophical Sciences.

I.                    Philosophy, the handmaiden of Politics

II.                 The Mathematico-Philosophical Presuppositions of the Brethren

III.               The Cosmology and Metaphysics of the Brethren

IV.              The Psychology and the Epistemology of  the Brethren

V.                 Conclusion


Chapter Six. The Diffusion of the Philosophical culture in the Tenth Century

I.                    Abu Hayyan Al-Tauhidi

II.                 Miskawayh

III.               Yahia b. ‘Adi


Chapter Seven. The Interaction of Philosophy and Dogma

I.                    The Eclipse of Theological Rationalism

II.                 The Ash’arite school and the Formulation of the Occasionalist Metaphysics of Atoms and accidents

III.               The Systematic Refutation of Neo-Platonism: Al-Ghazali


Chapter eight. The Rise and Development of Islamic Mysticism (Sufism)

I.                    Ascetic Origins

II.                 Pantheistic Tendencies: Al-Bastami (or Al-Bistami), Al-Hallaj, and others

III.               Synthesis and Systematization – Al-Ghazali and Ibn ‘Arabi


Chapter Nine. The Arab-Spanish Interlude and the Revival of Perpateticism

I.                    Beginnings of Philosophical Speculation in Muslim Spain: Ibn Masarrah, Al-Majriti, and Ibn Bajjah

II.                 Ibn Tufayl and the Natural Progression of the Mind Toward Truth

III.               Ibn Rushd and the Defense of Aristotelianism


Chapter Ten. Post-Avicennian Developments: Illumination and the Reaction against Peripateticism

I.                    Al-Suhrawardi

II.                 The Subsequent Development of Illumination: Sadr Al-Din Al-Shirazi (Mulla Sadra) and his successors


Chapter Eleven. Theological Reaction and Reconstruction

I.                    Literalism and Neo-Hanbalism: Ibn Hazm, Ibn Taymiyah, and Muhammad B. ‘Abdul-Wahhab

II.                 Moderation and Decline: F. D. Al-Razi, N. D. Al-Nasafi, Al-Iji, Al-Jurjani and Al-Bajuri

III.               Reaction and Reconstruction: Ibn Khaldun


Chapter Twelve. Modern Contemporary Trends

I.                    The Emergence of the Modernist Spirit: J. D. Al-Afghani, Muhammad ‘Abdu

II.                 Modernism in India: Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Ameer Ali, and Muhammad Iqbal

III.               Contemporary Philosophical Scene: Fundamentalism, Modernism, and Existentialism

IV.              Other Recent Developments: Positivism and Socialism



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