Problems of Oriental Philosophy
Journal Oriental philosophy - 2014


International Journal of "Problems of Oriental Philosophy"

ISSN: 2219-7370

Publisher: Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS)

and Institute Philosophy and Law (IPL) of ANAS

IF(Impact Factor): 0 / 2012


Editor: Dr. Zumrud Kuluzade

Assistant Editor: Phd.Rahil Najafov


Journal of Problems of Oriental Philosophy. Vol.16. (1) 2014 (JOPh Journal)


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Resumes in English, Arabian, Persian, Turkish, German and French


Summary [attachment=35]


Dr. Zumrud Guluzadeh



The XXI century. The Choice of Priorities in the

Study of the History of Intellectual Culture


The sections in the article, which are interrelated and supplement one another, present as an object of discussion the author’s view of some priorities in the study of the history of culture in the early XXI century.

&one. The XXI century. Scientific discoveries and hypotheses in natural and exact sciences and coordination of ideas on the content of the framework of categories and concepts of philosophy as a methodology of interdisciplinary studies.

&two. Humanism and tolerance as priorities in the study of the history of intellectual culture.

&three. On the question about the elucidation of the history of philosophy of the nations in the Moslem region in the context of the history of world philosophy. The XXI century. The choice of priorities: commonness or opposition.

&four. On some priority problems of the Oriental studies in the early XXI century. On the refusal from the East-centric and Western-centric tendencies in the study and appraisal of the cultures of different regions.



Dr.Javad Heyati





In the article, Dr.Javad Heyati expresses his opinion on the problem of study, teaching and propaganda of philosophy in the context of the world philosophical history. The scholar underlines the unreasonableness of some studies that confine the history of philosophical thought of the Islamic world to the period from the IX century to XII century. The development of the philosophy in the cultural region of Islam is distinguished by its continuity in the temporal context. Depending on conditions, this development was different in different periods and in different countries.

The scholar also draws attention to some questions related to the philosophy of Molla Sadra, the thinker who founded the original philosophical theory of substantial motion (al-harakat al-jawhariyyah).

Speaking about the history of philosophical thoughts of the East and the West, Javad Heyati points out that irrespective of divergence from the point of view of essence, philosophical thoughts, are basically similar and identical. He thinks that the idea brought to a focus by Zumrud Guluzadeh about the development of the work on “General Philosophy of the Nations of the Islamic Region” deserves a high appraisal, and he supports the idea. He states that Zumrud Gulzadeh’s idea about the difference between “the Islamic philosophy” and “the philosophy of the Islamic region” is also true.

Expressing his positive opinion about the journal “Problems of Oriental Philosophy” J.Heyati points out that the problems he deals with find their reflection in the journal, which is of a special scientific and intellectual value at the present stage.

In conclusion, the author presents his new book “Some Words on Western Philosophy”. This is a collection consisting of the comment on the work of the prominent English philosopher Bertrand Russell “History of Western Philosophy” and some philosophical works added by J.Heyati.




Dr. Mehmet Unal


Jalwatiyya in Tasawwuf History


The article presents wide information on the background, philosophical message and branches of the sect Jalwatiyya, one of the  trends extremely significant from the perspective of tasawwuf history. The range of the sect, the obligations of the sheikh and murid, the present state, the position and essence of the Jalwatiyya in the Islamic tasawwuf constitute the structure of the article.

The study is aimed at introducing briefly the past and present of the sect which enjoys a significant position in the cultural history of the Islamic region as a Sufi institution of approximately three centuries.

The sect of Jalwatiyya is an order founded breaking off from the Khalwatiyya. Aziz Mahmud Hudayi is considered to have branched off the Jalwatiyya from the sec of Khalwatiyya and formed an indepedent trend. The original areal of the sect coincided with the areas of the Ottoman Empire, especially Anatolia and the Balkans. Contrary to the Khalwatiyya principles of secession from the social life and asceticism, the Jalwatiyya promoted socialization, on the contrary, it inculcated good-fellowship and a moderate attitide to other religions.

The shariah roots of the Jalwatiyya were established on the religious ideas of the ahli-sunnah faith of Islam, hence they did not recognize the ‘taqiyyah’ considered right by the Imamiyya Shia. According to the Jalwatis, prior to the reception of revelation the Prophet s.a.a.w. used to spend more time in khalwat (private) and considered it acceptable, following the revelation he joined the people descending from the mountain, i.e. transferred to the condition of jalwat and got socialized, and this social life is actually considered right by Islam.

Thus, the Jalwatiyya is a Sufi doctrine more social than the Khalwatiyya and belongs to the ahli-sunnah faith peculiar to society.








The Presentation of  Mouchir Aoun’s Book. The Influence of Heidegger’s Legacy on Arabic and Moslem Regions


The article is devoted to the presentation of Mouchir Aoun’s book “The Influence of Heidegger’s Legacy on Arabic and Moslem Regions”. The article studies three main aspects of the problem: what Heidegger’s thought constutues, how Heidegger’s thought developed to define both the position of a human being and the comprehension of Heidegger in Arabic countries.

Heidegger is a German thinker who managed to benefit from the knowledge of his predecessors and influenced many a personality. According to him, philosophy is experiencing a decline as it ceased raising a problem of being. In the period of predominance of metaphysics lasting several centuries, the truth of being was veiled. To start its re-discovery Heidegger suggests deconstructing metaphysics. Mouchir Aoun recommends returning to Heidegger to find eventually the draft resolutions to urgent problems of Arabic countries. However, the Arabic thought did not accept deconstruction as a method. These countries should return the philosophy the content of which has been confiscated in favour of progress and sciences. Mouchir Aoun carried out a very brief geographical study of Heidegger’s influence for the sake of objective and rational analysis. According to him, the countries of Maghreb region (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) are more perceptive to posing the question about the traditional society for a second reading of the metaphysical legacy in the light of Heidegger’s thought. When considering history, two thoughts – Arabian and Heideggerian, or Western – do not seem so diametrically opposite, foreign to each other. At a closer look, one can state from the ethical point of view that each in its own way is based on a monotheistic religion. The author is sure that the integration of Heidegger’s thought into the universum of modern Arabian culture will provide conditions for multipolar discovery of modern Arabian societies. In the epoch of globalization and dieback of identities, such an approach to being can only reinforce chances for some planetary survival.



Dr. Akbar N.Najaf






The sect of Malamatiyya, which was recognized as “a movement of protest” by the Mutasawwufs, appeared in the form of secret dervishism in the land of Khorasan in the IX-X-century Islamic geography. The Malamatiyya, which didn’t constitute a sect itself, had a key part in the formation of the succeeding sects such as the Galandariyya, Heydariyya, Kizilbash-Alawiyya, Safawiyya, Bayramiyya.

The researchers of the Islamic tasawwuf called the Malamatis the wayfarers of the path to perfection. The Malamatis did not refrain from the hardship of obtaining all kinds of  marifat, religious knowledge, did not admit the ceremonial Sufi rituals and declared that religious sensitivities are free and the main goal of the human being is quest of truth.

There were more moderate groups and extremists also in the trend known as Malamatiyya, like in other sects. The extreme Malamatis were proponents of the idea of all kinds of religious freedom, preceded by the suggestion that strict rules of Shari’ah be loosened.

It is also known that the Malamatis have unceasingly had a frigid manner and discord against the Mutasawwufs.

Modesty inherent to the essence of Malamatiyya and the Malamatis’ understanding, tolerant attitude towards other religions should also be noted. The Malamatiyya was beyond the inclination to condemn other religions or blame them in sacrilege taking a fierce stand.

The Malamatiyya has also had a strong influence on literature of the Islamic geography. One can observe it in the works of Nizami and other classics.


Ph.D. Namiq Musali

Ph.D. Rahil Najafov






The article is dedicated to the first (as far as we know) philosophical work written in our national language - Azerbaijani Turkish by Ahmad Mugaddasi Ardabili as a philosopher in the context of the Azerbaijan philosophical history. The problems of wahdati-wujud reflected in Ardabili’s work “Agaidu-l-Islam” and his religious-philosophical comments constitute the general philosophical essence of the work. The great scholar interpreted the doctrine of being originally, approaching it in the frames of the religious-philosophical relations.

In the work “Agaidu-l-Islam” the initial idea constitutes the basis of the philosopher’s views related to being. Here on the basis of the notions of the first law or the first muharikka (actuator or principle), Mugaddasi presents the content of the category of being in details and diversely. According to the philosopher, being is known only by the manifestation of the initial idea. The category of being comprises the essential, possible and mumtani (impossible) beings.

Elucidating the source of discord between the philosophers and mutakallim scholars and the reasons for philosophers’ critical attitude towards them, Ardabili did not discriminate them from one another and did not prefer one group to the other. However, according to the philosopher, in general, the existence of prophets is necessary to keep stable the soceity’s chaotic, inharmonious structure and to maintain the social balance. As for the philosophers’ knowledge and science, they are not characteristic for the society, only rare people called khavass can benefit from them.