International Journal of "Problems of Oriental Philosophy"
Publisher: Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS)
and Institute Philosophy and Law (IPL) of ANAS
IF(Impact Factor): 0 / 2012
Editor: Dr. Zumrud Kuluzade
Assistant Editor: Phd.Rahil Najafov
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Perspectives on studying and teaching of the history of philosophy of Islamic region
In the beginning of the third millennium a special scientific, moral and political significance has taken on the studying of history of spiritual culture and in particular of philosophy of individual nations and regions of the World. This promotes both self-cognition and self-assertion of nations and regions, at the same time, their cognition by others. The global socio-cultural development and tendency toward cultural globalizations and transformation of the content of contemporary multiculturalism aimed at cultural assimilation of some nations and regions stimulate others diverse conflicts between the co-called East and West, and in particular the peoples of Islamic World. In this case, it is very important to recovery objective picture of the history of philosophy of nations of Islamic region by adequate scientific research in a context of World philosophy as its integral part of last and general promotion in a system of global education. The proposed would have a great value both for self-cognition of Islamic region and for global public opinion which ultimately regulate the process of socio-cultural development. In contrast to the policy of assimilation of cultures which in the long term certainly adversely affect the development of culture as the common heritage of the proposed concept would facilitate the further development of global culture on the principles of democracy and humanism.
The place and the role of philosophy of Islamic region in the evolution of Western (European) philosophy
The article presents the influence of the Medieval Philosophy of the Islamic cultural region on the formation and development of the West-European philosophy. Referring to the researches of the scholars from England, Turkey, Russia and Iran it identifies the place and role of Ibn Rushd’s (Averroes’) and Ibn Sina’s (Avicenna’s) legacy in the formation and development of the philosophy and independent thought in Medieval Europe.
The article points out the special role of Averroes’ and Avicenna’s ideas in the history of the world cultural legacy which they played in the establishment of the first faculties of philosophy at the Universities in France and Italy.
The Point “Ishraq” in Plato’s Philosophy
The article analyses the point “ishraq” in Plato’s philosophic teaching. The author shows that Plato is usually considered an ishraqi (illuminationist) philosopher and confronted with rationalist philosophers. Referring to Plato’s work “Dialectics”, the meaning of the concept “ishraq” is identified, and it is stated that Plato’s philosophy can be called ishraqi. However, Plato does not oppose “kashf” and “shuhud” (discovery and vision) resulting from “ishraq” against “istidlal” (deduction). According to Plato, the process of cognition starts with intuitive vision and ends with the mental vision of the object and being. Intuitive vision is the function of intuitive forces, meaning that the one which is felt is realized in the light of radiance. The mental vision is the function of the mental force and realizes the great truths in the light of mental ishraq. Both of them are the function of one order – nafsi-natiqa, meaning that its unity is the basis and protector of these levels which suggests general unity. The author reviews the categories of “jam” (totality) and “taqsim” (division) in Plato’s philosophy. “Jam” reflects the cognitive process through transition from senses to mind. And “taqsim” is, on the contrary, the cognition divided through the mental and logical patterns earlier existing in the mind.The point “jam” is ishraq, and the point “taqsim” is syllogism. The cognitive methods “jam” and “taqsim” can serve each other.
On philosophical schools and its place in the history of Islamic philosopy
In the article has been studied philosophical schools and its place in the history of Islamic philosophy. It should be noted impact of ancient Greek philosophy and philosophical thought of others nations as well as in occured the islamic philosophy as important factor. Relations between the peoples of East and Greek which characterized by a very its ancient history have been strengthened after the conquests of Alexander the Great in the third century BC. An ancient Greek culture, including his philosophical thought began to spread in East. Greek philosophers who lived in the different areas of East founded new scientific centers in here. In these centers known as schools or medresses in the history had been taught almost all science and philosphical heritage of that period and medicine and mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and etc. and had been realised in parallel them application and scientific research. The most famous of these schools were schools of Alexandria, Antakia, Reha and Nasibin. Horan and Jundishapur (Gundeshapur). Thus, there were a great scientific, cultural and educational centers in the many regions which would turn to the Caliphate territory in pre-Islamic era later. At the same time these centers were known as a philosophical centers. Above all, it was results of status of philosophy as to be science and of his position. Greek philosophical thought had spreaded in Islamic world in two form: Neoplatonism and Aristotelism or Peripatetism.
Philosophical Problems of Oriental Romanticism (on the basis of the investigation of J.Kh.Jubran’s and A.Ar-Reyhani’s legacy)
The article studies the philosophical problems of the Middle Eastern Romanticism. The author refutes the claims that romanticism is only a European phenomenon as a universal phenomenon of social and cultural life, and points out that in the West as well as in the East this trend is an indivisible part of national culture in social and cultural life of countries, and makes an impact on all the spheres of moral culture by penetrating the ideological and political life. The article studies the ideas about the Eastern and Western issues, nature, society, thinking processes reflecting pantheism in the world-outlook of the outstanding representatives of Oriental Romanticism, Jubran Khalil Jubran and Amin ar-Reyhani in the context of philosophy of Romanticism in the above-mentioned authors’ legacy. The author draws attention to the common features in the study and interpretation of philosophic problems in Western and Eastern Romanticism, and proves the existence of Romanticism as a peculiar and universal ideational trend in the world moral culture despite the differences in space and time. The study is based on the direct investigation of Jubran Khalil and Amir ar-Reyhani’s works.
Ibn Arabi and His Followers’ Concept “the Creator”: The unification of the tanzih and tashbih statements
The article states that although the Creator comprises the direct or indirect goal of all the classical sciences, each science presents a peculiar notion with its priorities and its method. The author points out the possibility and necessity of a separate investigation of the notion ‘the Creator’ according to Ibn Arabi and his followers. Alongside with maintaining the Islamic philosophers’ metaphysic thoughts, Ibn Arabi and his followers made some alterations in these thoughts and considered the existence of the Creator as the theme of metaphysics, the divine names as its principles, the relation of the Creator and realm as its problem. Although this approach was related to the notions expressed by the former sufis in simpler concepts and words, it was a new approach. That is, the themes formerly considered as moral issues were brought to the state of the problem of existence and evaluated more profoundly by Ibn Arabi and his followers. It is pointed out in the article that the notion ‘the Creator’ by Ibn Arabi and his followers explains the philosophic and verbal views based on the moral- and action-centered notion ‘the Creator’ by the conventional tasavvuf which finds its reflection in the most perfect form in the statement “Existence is Truth (Haqq) from the point of view of being existence”.
Khalwatiyya – as a fenomenon of the world culture
Sufism is an important factor in connecting people in Islam belonging to the different cultures and ethnicities.One of the most popular trends of Sufism is still Khalwatiyya and the modern world perceives the cultural history of the peoples of the Islamic region of the XV century as a humanistic culture of the Middle Ages. Khalwatiyya widespread among eastern nations, became a phenomenon in the dialogue of cultures and civilizations according to moral values. Seyid Dzamaladdin Yahya b. Baha ad-Din al-Shirvani Shamakhy al-Bakuvi who was born at the end of XIV-th century in Shamakhy in Azerbaijan and died in 1463-4 in Baku has been considered in this region as the real founder of the order Khalwati and one of the main theorists of his mystical doctrine. After the death of Seyid Yahya, his sons and his students (murids) (the number of his murids has reached 20.000 and 360 of them became his successor) have spread his teachings to the west and south-west of the Caucasus in the direction of Anatolia and to the european south-east towards the Balkans and the Africa passing through Syria, Egypt and Sudan to the mountains Kabil in Algeria where Khalwatiyya was introduced in the XVIII century by Sheikh Muhammad b. Abdurrahman al-Gashtuli al-Azhari and where Khalwatiyya took the name of its founder and became Rahmaniyya.
Kitab al-Zina fi-l-kalimat al-Islamiyya or “The Book of Universe” by Abu Hatim al-Razi
The meaning of the text as well as the meaning of the letter have always been in the focus of attention of sufi reflections. When reading the Koran, the interpreters study the entire text and its impact on society, while the sufis concentrate on the letter having more meaning as the carrier of moral, philosophical and metaphysical meanings. It always comprised the essence of debates and caused different interpretations depending on the schools which are very many and appealing to stern doctrines; however, the truth remained the same – there is another method of reading and understanding religion which is different from interpretations represented by canon law. Abu Hatim al Razi’s esoteric interpretation can serve as an example, it argues all that introduced in Kitab al-Zina fi-l-kalimat al-Islamiyya or “The Book of Universe”. Beginning with numbers which give value of each letter, al-Razi gets to the highest philosophical values such as tawahhud (the singleness of God). All stages of creation are combined in the letter from pure and unique divine mind to perceptible and diverse world. On the one hand, letters comprise the principle or origin of any object, on the other hand, they differ in the means of concretization of the material world or the world of accidents. As for the names and attributes of God, Abu-Hatim raises an important philosophical and philological problem. The one who addresses God decides himself by what name to call Him and by which attribute to address Him. Many theological schools such as ahl al-giyas (logics) or the followers of istilah (agreement), the followers of tawgif (divine origin), also called samc (understanding), Ahl al-Sunna (people of orthodox) make efforts to answer, but he is often contradictory. We can surely state that Abu Hatim’s conception of letters is the harmony which merges with the world, with the physical human being and his logical evidences.
Exotericism against Bid’ah: Abdurrahman al-Bistami
The article is interesting as a reflection of one of the universal harmony of religious and philosophical thought of the different spiritual culture of society where organically intertwined, as a rule, exotericisim and esotericisim, it has been assessed ambiguously. The first, represented by the orthodox religious teaching is reviewed positively, the second – not orthodox, is defined negatively as heresy (bid’ah). The contradiction between the phenomenon of exotericisim and esotericism has been given the experience of analysis of the Medieval spiritual culture of Islamic region, in particular the analysis of heritage of scholar and thinker of the 15th century – Abdurrahman al-Bistami. Interpretation of heritage and mainly his works “Fevaih al-miskiyya fil-fevatih al-makkiya”, as stated in the article, it shows the influence of doctrines of Ibn Arabi on the outlook Bistami and even on his choosing of title of this work, as well as a significant interest Bistami to many unorthodox well-known and little-known ideological currents (movements) and sects of Islamic East being based on the esotericism. Although Bistami negatively assessed these currents, however paying much attention to their explanation, he involuntarily promotes not only them, but also uses in his work mystical moments and the occultism belonging to this esoterical teaching.
“The Greater Jihad” of Imam Ghazali
The article has been devoted to the philosophical investigation of the problem of jihad, which is urgent nowadays. The author has conducted a comparative analysis between point of view of the great Imam Ghazali (1058-1112) and the “Greater Jihad” of Islam and has made a solid conclusion. Determined that jihad is the top of prey, that is, unity of science, fait and action. The life and works of Abu Hamid Ghazali, especially his work “Ihya Ulumid-din” (The Revival of Religious Sciences) one of the results of his great jihad, which may be an example to all humanity. It shall be notified the importance Ghazali’s works in the investigation and representation of jihad in the modern period.
The Comparative Analysis of the Significance of the Category of the Medieval Comicalness in Eastern and Western Context
The article studies in comparison the phenomenon of comicality in the context of philosophic and aesthetic transformation of Eastern and Western nations’ intellect in different Medieval cultures. It demonstrates the association of this phenomenon with the process of development of the nations’ life and world-outlook. It is emphasized here that despite the theoretical aspects of the issue, its functionality and historical antiquity, it has been less investigated. The article also proves the development tendencies of the comicality and its being a special philosophical and cultural model changing the world. According to the author, the comicality and the development of its elements to a certain degree brought some democratization and humanization to social life by simplification of language in Middle Ages, created a peculiar aesthetic approach to the world and caused a wide spread of the democratic genres of art relying on folklore traditions. By shaping the morals and life style of Medieval nations, comicality turned into a significant part of their world-outlook. It is pointed out here that as time passes, the unity of the concepts of comicality and seriousness acquires a logical nature, and the existence of this binary manifestation impacts the processes of progress and civilizing in culture and philosophy. By creating a peculiar systematism, the category of comicality reflecting the existence and thinking system enables integration and consolidation between Eastern and Western cultures.