International Journal of "Problems of Oriental Philosophy"
Publisher: Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS)
and Institute Philosophy and Law (IPL) of ANAS
IF(Impact Factor): 0 / 2012
Editor: Dr. Zumrud Kuluzade
Assistant Editor: Phd.Rahil Najafov
R e s u m e
MYSTICISM AND PANTHELSM AS UNIVERSAL PHENOMENA
OF SPIRITUAL CULTURE.
Sources of formation, entity, forms of self-expression, stages and conformity of historical evolution of mysticism and pantheism with natural laws are considered in the article like organically peculiar to global culture of phenomena. Author gave not quite traditional definition of mysticism as product of, for example, limitedness in the process of cognizing of potentials of rational thinking which is naturally characteristic for Homo sapiens by active reaction to varied stress situations surrounds its realty and which is necessary for human as psychological need of self-affirmation which it obtains making attempts to implement the desirable, not relying upon the decree of God, but its own strong-willed decision. Reasons listed above are condition of viability of mysticism and its inalienability from the humanity culture history. In the article the particular place is given to pantheism as theoretical expression of mystical world outlook in the context of culture history and particularly, philosophy history. Here is accentuated relation and association of pantheism with idealism, theology, religion, materialism and science. Source of unlimited viability of mysticism and its philosophy is aspiration of human to perceive the unidentified and subdue the independent from the will.
Philosophy of pantheism, as opposed to idealism and materialism, is based on harmony of the multitude and contradictions in general unity of the objective reality. Proceeding from comparative analysis of displays of mysticism and pantheism in the West-European culture and culture of Islam region (teaching on general unity of being of the West-European philosophers and teaching on Vahdat-al-vujud, philosophy of Islam region), author argues universality of the phenomena in the last, present (especially in the 20th and 21th centuries) and forecasted history of global culture. Attention is also paid to treating the varied, often discrepant interpretation phenomena examined in modern scientific and educative literature.
PHILOSOPHY BASED ON ISLAMIC WORLD
Main conclusions suggested by author in the article consist of the following:
- Philosophy arisen in the world of Islam and named as “Islam Philosophy” is not only Philosophy related with Islam.
- Ensuring perception and statement of being and human happiness, having been mythology, religion, perspicacity or mysticism, philosophy and science , appeared in 5 forms.
- Islam world philosophy on which formation Indian and Greek views had influence was not empty from new ideas that these ideas were to have been an object of research.
- Along with 5 religious schools – worships, School of Motazilism, having peculiar philosophic views amongst philosophical and ideological schools, had a special place.
Author emphasizes that originality of Islam region philosophy created owing to Indian and Greek philosophical ideas was not known to science yet. Attitudes of Muslim philosophers al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Bahmaniyar, Zakariyya Razi, Eynal-Guzat-Miyanaji, Shihabaddin Sohravardi, Abul-ala-al-Maarri, Omar Khayyam, Molla Sadra, Tabatabai and others and different philosophical schools to heritable philosophy, science and religion are analyzed in the article. Philosophical and philosophical-religious tendency and original analyses and classifications made by author to categorical conceptions are given too. Author seeing replacement of decadence of the region philosophy by the science and rationalism with imitation, appreciated significance of the past philosophical heritage in reviving philosophy of today Islam region highly. He saw the root of the renaissance in grandiose philosophical heritage which had the region in the course of historical development.
RESEARCH OF SUFISM AND ITS SHORT
In the article, Sufism is considered as a part of philosophy history of Islam region as specific form of life style, existential existence of individual in the context of philosophy of human nature study. Author expounds conception of research of Sufism as phenomenon including hermeneutical analysis, that is, the study throughout “dissolution” of researcher in the field of mystical experience of Sufi and relation of this experience with music, ritual dances and poetry in which and through which wisdom, that is Sufism philosophy shows itself and specific character of Sufi worry psychology can be understood. Following ethnological and anthropological research, researcher of Sufism philosophy must disclose spiritual basis of Sufism entity which is consisted in and shows itself in high morality of human, in his responsibilities for his actions and merit. Author considers comparativism (comparative and historical method of linguistics) and phenomenological method of understanding phenomenon essence through its display as optimal methods of research. Only analysis of ethnological, anthropological and philosophical fields of appearance of Sufism can give true imagination on its as philosophy of consciousness and conscience which is ready to explain moral orientation of human and ensure tolerance of his intentions in different areas of social and spiritual life.
In the light of the expounded, according to author, the time has come to review determinations and appreciation of Tasavvuf via interpretation of certain ethical doctrines well-known in the world.
ABOUT WORLD-VIEW OF TWO GREAT THINKERS OF ISLAM
CULTURE AREAL MOVLANA JALALADDIN RUMI AND MOLLA
In the first part of the article the entity of the world-view of one of the eminent thinkers and poets of the 13th century BC Jalaladdin Rumi is disclosed. Author emphasizes Rumi’s heritage relation with the Greek philosophy and philosophical culture of Islam region, gravity of thinker’s teaching to Sufism philosophy many propositions of who got original interpretations on his heritage. According to the philosophical views of Rumi, substantial base of the all is Divine entity, which is continual, whereas concrete phenomena of the world is changeable and presents unity of opposites by means of which they become known; they are changed from the lowest forms to the highest. The highest stage of the development is human who reflects the Divine entity the most fully. He is called to be digressed from all the material and personal ego and reached condition which enables him to get to know real entity of the being, that is, the Highest Truth. Second part of the article is devoted to teaching of well-know Iranian philosopher of the 18th BC Molla Sadra, on changeable entity of the universe or theory of substantial motions and today’s views. Substantial motion, according to teaching of Molla Sadra is a main reason of the universe existence, its phenomena and processes, which are interpreted as an uninterrupted display of the Divine entity. Substantial movement is caused by the Creator being which is beyond the time and is a base of all the entity. Movement and changes of the concrete entities, time and other categories are interpreted by Molla Sadra as objective phenomena of the real material world, though they themselves do not exist. Movement is characterized like transfer from potential state to the actual one and which is only peculiar to the phenomena, have ability to be changed and moved. Only attributes are subjected to changes, but substantial base remains to be invariable. Considering human problem in the ontological aspect, the thinker emphasizes that the foundation of body is substance movement of the body, and its further existing is spiritual and why it is immortal. Outlooks of Molla Sadra on atom structure , corpusculness and wave vibrations of its corpuscles, their constant movement and change are in keeping with some discoveries of up-to-day science in the field of macro and microcosms, particularly, to outlooks of the philosopher and mathematician of the 20th century Bertrand Russell.
MUTUAL PHILOSOPHIC RELATIONS BETWEEN IRANIANS
After, content of the words “Iranians” and “people of the West” is opened in the article; mutual philosophic relations among people of Iran and the West from very old times till today are researched here too. Firstly, there is paid attention to the relations between philosophic thoughts widely spread in Iran before Islam and the Greek and Roman philosophies of different periods. Development way in culture and philosophy in Islam period and positive influence of Islamic thought and policy on this way is observed here as well. Here influence of philosophic culture of Iran on rise process of the Greek philosophy and spread of mysticism in Iran in the period of Hellenism are emphasized. Then there are put forward considerations about entering of the Greek views to Islam world and leading roles fell to Iranians lot in intellect sciences (felling first initiative to Iranians lot). There is paid attention to extension of philosophic life in the world of Islam and Iran on the one side and particularly, formation of philosophic (school) teaching by Iranians in the West World in Dark ages in the written article. The greatest tendency of Iran philosophy to perspicacity as opposed to the west is noted. There is given laconic scientific information on searching and teaching, that is penetration of the west philosophy studies to Iran for the latest age and condition of philosophy in Iran in up-to-date period.
PLACE AND ROLE OF RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY AND
SCIENCE IN HUMAN CULTURE ACCORDING TO
J. ASADABADI AFGHANI’S WORDS
Opinions of Jamaladdin Asadabadi Afghani (1838-1897), Azerbaijanian Turk by birth, about religion, philosophy and science, mutual relations between them and their place and role in development of human culture are analyzed in the article. There is shown in a number works of thinker that Jamaladdin considered its place and role in society. There is also shown in the article that J. Afghani highly appreciated place of philosophy and science in human culture. Emphasizing their close relation, he called philosophy as general spirit of all sciences, the science defending them and the science as a basis of philosophical world-outlook. Author comes to conclusion that in spite of views of Afghani on religion, philosophy and science are seen discrepant outwardly, the giving the first and main place to religion in his thought is not denied. So, Jamaladdin was confirmed as being a source of religious philosophy and scientific intellectuality and accepted unity of religion-and-philosophy-and-science in progress of human culture.
ABOUT STATEMENT OF PROBLEM OF FREEWILL IN
HISTORY OF EAST AND WEST PHILOSOPHY
Human free will problem has remote past equal to human history and attracted attention of human society philosophers and thinkers to itself from old times in the East or the West. Way of decision of the problem stated are closely related with human views to life, the first steps made, style of life made and life lived in the whole.
There is noted in the article, that freewill problem, due to its relation with human fortune, was studied by philosophical tendencies as of the East as the West, especially. As the problem stated was one of the philosophical themes throughout the history, had been the topical for religion and theology as well. Statement of the problem in the West philosophy found ambiguous solution. In general, though human freewill was recognized by a number of philosophical currents, matter of its freedom was responded by different thinkers differently. While some part of thinkers accepted it, others refuted it at all and the third were making attempts to come a common denominator between these two positions. We can say that by efforts of the west philosophical schools, including the Christian philosophy there were made to problem remained open.
Human freewill problem have had an important place in Muslim east philosophy too. Being one philosophical and religious-ideological matter, this problem occurred in the 7th century. Different aspects of freewill question resulted in creating the Muslim word schools in the East. In general, religious philosophical views of Islam cultural region related to free will question can be divided into three categories, which are 1. Jabarism (religious-philosophical current negating freewill of human); 2. Qadarism (religious-philosophical current forwarding absolute freewill of human);
- Middle way (religious-philosophical current recognizing freewill, but negating absolute compulsion on the one hand and absolute freedom on the other hand).
So, there were put forward different views with regard to the problem in different philosophical and religious-ideological conceptions of the Old Greece and Islam East and the Christian West of the Middle Ages, as well as in the West historically, Even, analyzing comparatively the stated problem, it is possible to draw a parallel between them and see presence the very like tinges in many moments. Besides that being final, freewill problem turned into the object of arguments as long ago as old times, has been remaining as still not to be settled till our days at the background of these thoughts, makes a number of philosophers and thinkers of the East and West, including scientists engaged in religious philosophy to mediate.
ON BEAUTY CONCEPTION IN THE AREAL OF THE
One of the most important objectives of art study, particularly, study of diminutive paintings, is to revel ideological and esthetical background, which has been the basis of ideal of beauty for artist and connoisseur of art, just that ideal that was embodied or seen by them in miniatures and what is miniature? And what is its contribution to beauty conception universal beauty ideal? Only kind of art which makes possible to imagine its evolution, beginning from origin and all over areal of Muslim world is miniature, particularly, reflected in the book illustration. There is raised a question in the article on possibility of calling different displays of visual art of Islamic countries Moslemic and a question of presence of strong relations between religion, philosophy and Islamic esthetics. It is mentioned, that religion and philosophers concepts connected with it entered cultures of peoples of Islamic geographic areal from Spain to India and proposed Moslemic vision of the world. One of the most important objectives of modern arty study is to find out natural relations between paintings, philosophy and religion as in orthodox as in esoteric and mystic forms of the latter, which had deep effect on Islamic art in the age of its prosperity.
As considers the author, careful research of changes in esthetic canons in different periods of countries of Islamic world and making attempts in determining reasons of art connoisseurs admiration in them as well as making attempts in finding out the world esthetic thought, would be interest.
Main objective of the article is a thesis on existence of definite forms of conceptions, their relations, compositions, conceptions of color solutions, conditionality of development of space and time in composition which correspond to Islamic vision of the world and that this conception of beauty is, almost without exception, in all compositions of Moslemic art of miniature.
ETHICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF BAHAISM
Some ethical and philosophical aspects of the Bahai religious doctrine are analyzed in the article. Author considers the issue on degree of appropriateness of entering Bahaism into rank of pure philosophical doctrines in the context of searches of solution of World Philosophy notion existence problem. At the same time, there is noted that realizing philosophical and dialectical idea of unity and conflict of opposites by itself per se, Bahaism initially possessing philosophical cosmopolitism, suggests mankind new means of universal understanding “strange” tradition by means of declared self-doctrinal tolerance in the most proper and non-violent interpretation. So, it solves “the problem of overcoming the alien of the strange” searches of which are carried on in modern science. Author also points to that the philosophy of Bahaism, for all that is deprived of speculative as it was followed by million people in the world whose searches were far from philosophical rationalism.
Among moral and ethical aspects of teaching author also singles out such issues as problems of correlation of good and evil, re-education of human spirit when meeting with these concepts and review of them in the course of world life. Interpretation of the mentioned conceptions in Bahaism is brought to recognition of human spirit imperfection fact which causes dualism of thought, which divides objective reality existence on illusive condition of “good” and “evil”. Modem approach to these concepts in Bahaism is also elucidated.
Having focused on determination partly accepted in the scientific world with respect to religions motions of universalist character like Bahaism, researcher considers that Bahaism should be classified as “new religion” tern being guided by analysis of community activity as in spiritual fields as in the social.