International Journal of "Problems of Oriental Philosophy"
Publisher: Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS)
and Institute Philosophy and Law (IPL) of ANAS
IF(Impact Factor): 0 / 2012
Editor: Dr. Zumrud Kuluzade
Assistant Editor: Phd.Rahil Najafov
THE TRUTH ACCORDING TO IBN RUSHD
The issue of correlation between religion and philosophy and a question as to which one of these fields brings people the real truth have been discussed in history of philosophic thought for centuries and continues to attract attention today.
While religious stated, as a rule, that truth is the domain of religion, there were two directions among philosophers with regard to this issue: some considered that the subject of knowledge both in religion philosophy is the same and respectively, the truths declared by them are identical and the others taught that both the subject of knowledge and the truths declared by them are opposed to each other. The first direction was represented by Kindi and Ibn Rushd, the second was by Gazali.
In the philosophic literature of the middle ages and centuries to follow there is an opinion that Ibn Rushd taught about the existence of two origins of distinctive truths, a religions and philosophic one. This opinion is conditioned by the fact that only part of the philosophers heritage – works devoted to the interpretation of Aristotle’s teaching, “The Refutation of Refutation” tractate was translated into European languages. This has become the cause for an inadequate understanding the thinkers position on this issue. Parisian averroists that used an authority of the thinker against Christian dogma, significantly contributed to the solidification of the idea that Ibn Rushd acknowledged a dual character of the truth. The wrong interpretation of Ibn Rushds position to this issue can also be explained by the fact that it is tractates wrote by him at mature ages in which the correlation of religion with philosophy is addressed, that virtually dropped from the focus of scholars. As the thinker wrote, religion and philosophy teach about the same-about being in general: the truth of being, if it is truth indeed, cannot be dual, hence the truth of philosophy cannot be contradictive to the truth of religion and be different than the knowledge of its creations. By interpreting isolated “ayats” of the Koran Ibn Rushd stresses that the Almighty calls for cognition of the created, therefore he writes: “…a way peculiar to philosophers is the research of all the being and there would not be a more adequate form of worshiping the Creator than the knowledge of his creations”.
The truth of being, states Ibn Rushd, is interpreted by religion in a laconic, popular language as opposed to philosophy which declares the truth based on scientific data through the use of specific term peculiar to its language while the latter can be understood only by specialists to this field.
If woks by Ibn Rushd, particularly, its tractates “Faslul-makal”, “Menahidjull-edille” would be examined in its entirety, it became apparent that there is no indication of two truths in his teaching.
PHILOSOPHY OF ISLAMIC ART IN TURKEY
The article addresses the concept of Islamic art developed in Turkish aesthetics of the XX th century as well as ideas and outlook of such prominent Turkish aestheticians of art as H. Z. Ulken, C. K. Eshkin, I. H. Baltadjioglu and others regarding the issues of the concept, their thoughts on the notion of “Islamic art”, its boundaries and concrete contents.
In the focus of the author of the article there is a question on the abstract character of Islamic art and its ideological outlook basics that conditioned the formation of abstract artistic principles of this art.
Thoughts of Turkish aestheticians regarding the existence of successive links between aesthetic traditions of Islamic-Turkish Art and principles of the contemporary modernism are also elucidated in the article and the attitude of the author to this issue is expressed: it is pointed out that although there is a certain formal similarity between these art directions, nevertheless, philosophic aesthetic values they adhere to are completely different (and even opposed to each other).
Islamic art, its artistic principles had been formed under the influence of Islam doctrine on the being and God which in general determined its abstract character. But a Moslem artist did not go away from reality or avoid it, inasmuch as, according to this doctrine, not only the spiritual world is real, but so is the physical world of live being created by God. Therefore, in Islamic art not only a spiritual world, the world of sense, but also a real world of occurrences, the world of live creatures found expression. A Moslem artist sought to express in its art the beauty of a real world which, according to his beliefs, is a reflection of the divine grace as well as demonstrating the reigning order and harmony of the world.
As to modernism, especially in its radical forms, as is indicated in the article, it stands on the opposite side. It completely rejects the connection of art with reality, with the world of occurrences by considering this principle as a main criterion of the arts value.
The article concludes with the assertion about the high aesthetic value of Islamic-Turkish Art which, as the author stresses, is also emphasized nowadays by its beauty and liveliness and gives people aesthetic satisfaction by raising a high aesthetic sense in therm.
Seyid Huseyn Musavian
GENESIS OF THE WORLD IN THE ASPECT OF THE
“SUBSTANTIONAL MOVEMENT” THEORY
The article presents the authors interpretation of the way the issue of the worlds genesis was formulated and considered by Molla Sadra in the light of the “substance movement” theory.
Following brief information on the issue in general, specifics of the approach to it by Molla Sadra and his interpretation of the category of genesis and respectively, the issue of the worlds genesis in connection with and as dependent on substance movement are addressed.
Molla Sadra points out that the issue of the worlds genesis is considered, as a rule, in the temporal aspect, i.e. people seek the answer to the question as to whether “the world has always existed or emerged at a certain pint of time?”. However, be believes that scholars and thinkers who take a similar approach to the issue are too far from the true understanding and interpretation of the matter.
Molla Sadra by stressing the significance of substance movement and supposing that the existence of every type of being as well as everything that takes place are, in the long run, the causes of substance movement, emphasizes that the genesis of a being results from substance movement and perhaps it itself is the one. However, the nation of genesis, he indicates, cannot be applied to the world as a whole but only to elements constituting the world, to isolated concrete beings the existence of which is caused by permanent changes resulting from substance movement. Since, according to Molla Sadra the world in its integrity does not have its nature definition as a phenomenon, therefore it is not appropriate to separately address its genesis. In addition, the formulation of a similar question would lead to the acknowledgment of an unchangeable, static world that might have existed sometime in the past which is absurd, since the world is the aggregate of isolated concrete beings it is made up, and is an emanation of constantly moving and changing substances. However, as is also pointed out by Molla Sadra, acknowledging the actuality of worlds isolated parts does not withhold the question: “What is the origin of the world?” because another question arises here: “Do isolated concrete being emerging every other moment have a starting-point of all changes and developments to have taken place so far?”, i.e. “Was the world created or has always existed?”. At the end of the article the author indicates that “this matter is more of mystery than an issue, moreover it is a mystery which can be only given a thought to but would never be unraveled”.
Mehmet Nuri Yilmaz
THE REALM OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN ISLAM
The article addresses the issues of perception in the Islamic consciousness with reference to the Koran. It discusses the connection of mind with soul, the emergence of harmony between an individual and the society based on the perception of its past, present and future, its role in the elimination of hostility and disintegration as well as its relation with human responsibility.
The guiding of the human by Islam to perceiving its internal and external world, social and historic events is grounded on references to ayats of the Koran.
The Koran invites people to think and the human should seek knowledge. The invitation to think opens a way to philosophic perception.
The author by referring to Dr. Mehmet Bayraktara, stresses a greater influence of al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, al-Gazali, Ibn Rushd and other philosophers on the philosophy of western Christians and Jews.
With reference to the Koran the ability of the human to think freely and independently, to avoid imitation, to have the opportunity to criticize everybody based in Islamic principles of moral and upbringing is demonstrated in the article. There is an emphasis made with regard to criticizing rather those who have had sins than the religion for the sins of Moslems that are against the Korans principle of independent thinking.
According to the author the prohibition by Islam of everything that drinking and is against mind and intellect had been the cause for a significant development of culture and philosophy up to XII th century A. D. Afterwards this development has stopped and the apparent regress observed nowadays forces us to improve this situation. It is associated with the elimination of those cultural codes which prevents from the development of the peoples ability to think promoted by servants of religion, philosophy and science.
It is obvious that Islam, which accepts consciousness and thinking as an akt of worshiping, is exposed to all rational and scientific activities.
ON SUFI ORDERS IN AZERBAIJAN (X-XX CENTURIES)
The article is based on the study of epigraphic monuments and gives a valuable scientific information on the spread of Sufism over various geographical zones of Azerbaijan; it can be a basis for a reconstruction of the history as to how Sufism developed in the country as well as the revelation of connection in Sufism as a relatively integral phenomenon of the regions Islamic culture.
The epigraphic monuments preserved facts of the existence of Sufi Orders in Azerbaijan such as “Kalandariya” with its offshoot “Neymatullahiya”, “Khadariya”, “Kadiriya”, “Bektashiya” with its offshoot “Baba-Samit”, “Khalfatiya”, “Nakshbandiya” with its offshoot “Alaviya”. While identifying Sufi monuments a verse from the Koran cited as “Everybody who is on it will vanish and the image of your Lord remains with glory and dignity” (The Koran Sura 55, ayats 26-27, translation by I. Y. Krachkovski, M. 1963) engraved on a gravestone was of help to the author, since as the author writes, beginning from the IX th century the notion of Sufism.
Based on the analysis of monuments given by her, the author writes about connections of Muhammad Ali Bakui, an Azerbaijan philosopher and poet and his brother, a thinker Pir Hussein Shirvani – “khanegah” of whom has still remained in the “Navahi” village on the Pirsaat river, with Sheikh Abu Said Abu-l Khayr, an eminent Iranian Sufi.
As is stated in the article, “khanegah” and a gravestone of Sheikh Abu Said (died in 1357) who was a descendant and follower of Sheikh Abu Said Abu-I Khair Khorasani, have remained in Azerbaijan (in Ordubad).
In the XIV th century another descendant of Sheikh Abu Said Abu-l Khair Khorasan, Abu Said Abdal Bakui lived and preached Sufism in Baku.
Abu Said Abdal Bakui himself and his followers in Azerbaijan were representatives of Kalandar-Sufi and possessed “lagabs”. “Baba”, “Bab” and “Abdal” rejected well-being and lived on offerings.
Based on epigraphic data such centers of Bektashiya Order with its offshoots as “Derbishane Baba Samit” were revealed. “Khanegah” of Baba Samit was located in the Shikhlar village of the Beylagan region. In the sign above the entrance to the butial tomb Sheikh Baba Samit is called as a son of Soltan Ali Ibn Khadji Bektash Veli from the family of a Shiite Imam Riza.
The lagab of “Baba” as is assumed by the author, points to the connection of Bektashi with a sect of Babaids that emerged later.
The continuous existence of Dervish Order of Baba Samit in Shirvan and Absheron is confirmed, by written documents as well as epigraphic monuments. In a decree by Shah Sultan Hussein (1704) the appointment of heads (caliphs) of some Dervish Orders that existed in a number of Shirvan “magals” is addressed: a Dervish Society of Baba Samit is also mentioned among them.
Responsibilities of caliphs appointed by the government are enumerated in the decree. This supports the idea that at those times Sufi Orders were under the control of the government. Those most respected and closest to the Sefevit “khanedan” were appointed as caliphs. The position of caliphs was inherited. Thus, the names of the Caliph Ali Ibn Khalif Godja Ali Ibn Khalif Kamal are mentioned in signs on the mausoleum located in Buzovna (2, p. 84 / 208) and the Mosque in Ramani (2, p. 180 / 145). A semi-destroyed complex of khanegah constructions including the Mausoleum of “Sheikh Baba” and a huge cemetery with gravestones of the Sheikhs “murids” and Arabic sign by Sheikh Abdussalam (died in 1358) cited as “Drank form the spring of Sal-Sabil” the author concludes that a Sufi Order Kadiriyya was active in that place.
INTERRELATION BETWEEN IRFAN AND PHILOSOPHY
The contents of the nations of Irfan and philosophy, their common and distinctive features are addressed in the article.
According to the author, Irfan which is peculiar to and widely spread in the Islamic cultural sector is differentiated from philosophy by faith and adherence to faith.
Different forms of expressions in philosophy are depicted in the paper: information is given on divine and higher branches of philosophy as well as practical philosophy. According to the author, “ philosophy is science that teaches about the truth of being to the extent the human is capable of perceiving”. Taking into consideration the limited perceptive ability of the human and consequently acknowledging his inability to fully percept the truth of being, some scholars prefer using the word “modes” instead of the word “truth”.
Philosophic and irfanic directions taking place in the Islamic cultural section, their ideological diversity and certain confrontation are addressed in the article.
A special chapter entitled “higher philosophy of the philosophy by Molla Sadra” devoted to a teaching of a prominent philosopher of the XVII th century Molla Sadra, presents synthesis of irfan of philosophy which is capable of eliminating a confrontation between philosophic and irfanic direction.
Thoughts of Molla Sadra about the human, the universe and God supported by arguments demonstrate the relevance of the Islamic sector to a classical culture and this relevance is proved by references to the heritage of Ibn Arabi, “Fusus al-hikam”, Movlavi, Attar and Nasimi.
In the conclusion, the article demonstrates the close connection of Molla Sadras higher philosophy with philosophical traditions of the classical heritage as well as its capability of bringing philosophy and irfan together in the Islamic sector and its being a solemn guarantee for the development of future philosophic culture.
THE PLACE OF PHLOSOPHIC TRENDS OF ISLAMIC
REGION IN THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF
On 12-14 June 2002 Institute of Philosophy and Political-Legal Studies of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences together with Philosophy Society of Azerbaijan and “Problems of Oriental philosophy” international scientific theoretical journal held an International Scientific Conference “The Place of Islamic Culture region Philosophical Trends in the History and Culture of Azerbaijan”. The speakers represented different fields of the Azerbaijani, Turkish and Iranian science.
Having been widely spread in the Islamic East for centuries, while continuing to exist either in this or another form on the European, American and African continents philosophic trends of Islamic region have had a specific niche and role in social-cultural life throughout history.
The scientific topicality on the Conference is associated with the acuteness that exists in approaches to the scientific assessment and analysis of a philosophical aspect of these trends. During the Conference a number of general theory and Azerbaijan history and culture related issues have been addressed during speeches and presentations.
The subject of debate was an issues of the concept and methodology of philosophic trends of Islamic region, philosophy and religion, contemporary eastern and western centralism of philosophical problems or the use of universal category system and scientific appraisal criteria at a global scientific level that were addressed in the first speech (by Z. Kuluzade Doktor of Philosophy) of the Conference and as its direct follow-up in a theoretical workshop.
Speeches and presentations on 31 topics relevant to the main subject covering history, philosophical history, literature, language, arts, music and other areas were included in the Conference program. These speeches and presentations and discussions around them produced many new and original thoughts.
Considerable attention was given to such presentations as “Tarikats’ and their place in the Azerbaijan’s social life” by M. Nemat, Associate Member of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science who has undertaken systematic scientific study of epigraphic monuments in the Azerbaijan territory for 50 years, “Elucidation of the Islamic philosophy in the context of contemporary philosophy” by A. Shukurov, Doctor of Philosophy, “The issue of prefect human” by Dr. Prof. Seifullah Sevim (Turkey), “The issue of free will in eastern philosophical trends. Statement of the question in the Azerbaijani philosophy” by E. Mustafayev, “Religious tolerance of non-Muslims settled in the Islamic community” by Doctor Saffet Kose (Turkey), “The issues of governance in the Islamic culture related philosophy” by Z. Shabanov, “Faridadin Attar about seven states in ‘tasavvuf’ and Philosophical Poetry of Azerbaijan” by Yashar Javanshir, Associate Professor (Iran), “Nasimi as the flounder of a philosophical style of the Azerbaijani language” by S. Mehdiyeva, Doctor of Philology, “Numbers related expression of the ‘Hurufi’ philosophy in the Azerbaijani literal language” by A. Alizade, Doctor of Philology.
A particular stress was made to the history and philosophy of Sufism in speeches and presentations. Thus, interesting presentations were made by Professor J. Rustamov - “The ideas of being and non- being in the Rumi’s ‘masnavi’”, by H. Alaskarova, Candidate for historical science - “Various data about the ‘Khalvatiyya Society’”, by K. Buniyatzade, Candidate for Philosophy - “The History of ‘tasavvuf’ and the significance of original sources in philosophical studies: based on the book ‘Al-Luma by Sarraj Tusi’”, by R. Ahmadov, Candidate for Philosophy - “The impact of the Philosophy of Sufism on the creative activites of Seyid Azim Shirvani”, by S. Guliyeva “About Sufism and Shiabaddin Suhravardi in the books by Abdurrahman Badavi”, by M. Shakikhanova, “The concept of perfect human in Sufism”, by I. Ibrahimova - “The issue of time in the book ‘Masnaviyye-Manavi’ by Jalaladdin Rumi”, I. Zarganayeva, - “The impact of the creative activity of Abu Hamid Gazali on the Azerbaijani philosophy”.
A great interest was expressed to presentations on philosophic trends of Islamic region by Art Studies candidates S. Farhadova “Links between Islamic esoteric philosophical trends and music culture” and T. Bayramov “Metaphysics of the Azerbaijani Arts (the study of ‘symbols’ system) and others.
Controversial issues related to the topic of the three- days Conference have once again underlined the great need of the scientific community for studies on research concepts of the eastern culture to be undertaken by the contemporary science. Taking account of this necessity we request the submission of articles and opinions on the topic to our journal.
We believe that our thoughts on “Research Concepts of the Eastern Culture” might be useful for the determination of scientific conceptual attitudes of the regional culture in the context of modern globalization and to this process.