International Journal of "Problems of Oriental Philosophy"
Publisher: Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS)
and Institute Philosophy and Law (IPL) of ANAS
IF(Impact Factor): 0 / 2012
Editor: Dr. Zumrud Kuluzade
Assistant Editor: Phd.Rahil Najafov
The humanist ideas in Islam and in the
classical Islamic culture
During several centuries some scientific editions and popular-propagandist literature tried to substantiate the following theses: Islam is a militant religion; humanism is exclusively achievement of the West it is organically alien to Islam and to the culture founded on the Islamic values.
The stereotype of “the militant Islam” which was skillfully used for the political purposed has been applied still at present.
However, all assertions on the militant nature of Islam are not substantiated or at least one-sided. According Koran the method of forcible acceptance of any religious faith is categorically rejected (2 : 257, 16 : 126); a weapon may be applied only for the purposes of self-defense (22 : 40 – 41, 2 : 186) (with the exception of polytheists); a relation to heterodoxies is loyal (9 : 6), including relation to Jews and Christians. Moses and Jesus, the prophets of Jews and Christians, like Mohammed are considered Messengers of one God.
Presence of the humanist ideas in the medieval theology, philosophy, jurisprudence, pedagogics, literature, also empirical facts of the history, such as peaceful coexistence of Muslim peoples with peoples of other religions, their collaborative works in different scientific centers etc. reveal the falsity of assertions of some authoritative western researchers (B. Eger, K. Bekker, G. Sheder, B. Shpuler and others) who believe that the classical Muslim culture was proved to be able neither to elaborate own humanist ideas, nor understand the humanism of the antiquity.
G. G. Kuliev
Western science and Eastern parable – like
Till recently the methodology of Western science has been developing of poetical, parable – like, metaphorical thinking. With the exposure of scantiness of cognitive potentialities of logic, the physicists had to pay a special attention to other aspects of human thinking.
The article examines in detail philosophical discussions between Bohr and Heisenberg. It is noted that coryphaei of modem physics rather often used cognitive potentialities of “parable – like thinking”. They insisted on supplement of logic with cognitive peculiarity of poetical, figurative thinking, paying attention to traditional values of Eastern way of cognition. It is also shown that it is not more chance that parable – like thinking played a leading part in the creative work of later Wittgenstein. Above – said permits to assert that the latest trends in Western methodology of science are orientated towards exposure of cognitive potentialities of poetical, parable – like, metaphorical thinking which did not join the context of traditional scientific norms. Themes of parallelism between Western and Eastern scientific values acquire especial significance at present.
The originality of Muslim philosophy as
a philosophy of the East
The article is devoted to analysis of the essence of the originality of Muslim philosophy. The author distinguishes the concepts of “philosophy of Islam” and “Muslim philosophy”. Unlike dominating in the literature interpretation of Muslim philosophy as identical to the Eastern peripatetism the author includes into this concept philosophy of Kalam and Sufism.
Further the author gives his understanding of originality as the unity,
synthesis of tie and rupture with tradition, which is called by him as “condition”. He tries on the basis of the analysis of Muslim philosophy and its history to reveal the essence of the originality of Muslim philosophy.
The author considers Koran and Sunna as well as the Eastern and world cultures to be “the conditions” of Muslim philosophy. Religion and science as active elements of culture promote the originality and development of philosophy.
The aim of development and the essence of originality is discovery of the Truth which is adequate to the Welfare of a man and society. Originality being opposite to passivity of thought has moral and gnoseological significance and is directly connected to science.
The author believes that the stagnation of the scientific thought in the Muslim world caused the stagnation in the history of Muslim philosophy from XV until XIX centuries. However, during these centuries there were some outstanding philosophers, in particular Molla Sadra who “developed his substantiated philosophical system like Ibn Sina”.
According to the author in XVIII – XIX centuries there were not the Muslim metaphysics, gnoseology, or cosmology.
Renaissance of the originality of Muslim philosophy is in its treatment to Koran which has been a guide book and source of revelation for each century. It is also in the new interpretation and explanation of the search of the truth based on the unity of experimental and over experimental knowledge and promoting the welfare of personality and society.
Aesthetic thought in Turkey (20th century)
The first quarter of the XX century in the history of Turkey was characterized by such significant socio - political events as national liberation movement, fight of the Turkish people for independence which finally led to the collapse of the Khalifat and the establishment of the republic. The state principles of the independent republic fixed in the Constitution of the state, development of capitalist relations strengthening its contacts with the European states also the rich national cultural values promoted sufficiently the development of culture and art in Turkey.
In the field of aesthetics it was expressed in the formation of different ideological positions and directions, also in interpretation of problems of art and artistic creativity. There were two main ideological trends in the art – materialists (realist), originated from the Tanzimat literature and aesthetics and defending the values of social active realism on the one hand as well as formalist one based on the principles of idealism and subjectivism, on the other hand. According to the latter a form which is an art, is a carrier of the aesthetic features of artistic work. It does not reflect the content of art. It is the essence of art. Adherents of this point of view consider art as a means for achieving the transcendental essence which is accessible for creative imagination of an artist. This idealist and subjective conception of art taking important positions in the modem Turkish aesthetics was formed under the influence of the philosophical and aesthetic ideas of the West.
One of the important places in the Turkish aesthetics belongs also to the conception of “the Islamic art”. Adherents of this conception reveal the philosophical foundations of “the Islamic art”, its aesthetic principles, and explain the essence of “the Islamic art” on the basis of the consistent monotheism of the Muslim religion and by the essence of the Islamic doctrine about God. They reduce sources of the Western modernism to the aesthetic traditions of the Islamic art.
The author pays much attention to the analysis aesthetic conceptions of the outstanding representatives of the Turkish aesthetic thought of the XX century. In particular she gives a detailed analysis of the evolution of the aesthetic ideas of S. K. Etkin, characterizes the conceptions elaborated by I. Kh. Baltacioglu, I. Tunali, Z. Guvemli, A. Turani, J. Sena.
Philosophical foundations of theory of the
National revival by Ziya Gokalp
Since the middle of the XIX century a new period in a history of Muslim philosophy began. It was its new renaissance. The contemporary renaissance of the socio – philosophical thought in Turkey and formation of the new tradition of philosophical thought there were connected with the name of Ziya Gokalp (1876 – 1925). For the first time the elaborated a scientific theory of revival of the Turkish nation titled as Turkism . This theory was based on some ideas of western philosophy and sociology.
Basing his theory on social idealism Gokalp defended the principle of the supremacy of society over individual. Like Durkheim he considers ideals as social phenomena, which possess objective existence. He reject the points of view of the objective and subjective idealism as well as that of materialism in his definition of the essence of ideal. Conceming causes of origin of ideals Gokalp believes that ideals are caused by structural changes in a society.
Ideals have social character. Therefore, there must be some force which should make individual to accept ideals. Social consciousness is such a force. Acceptance of ideals of a society makes individual to refuse from own interests. By this act individual is being transformed into a personality.
(İRAN İSLAMİC REPUBLİC)
The problem of determinism and will’s
freedom in the philosophy of Mevlevi
The article deals with Jalaladdin Rumi’s interpretation of one of the universal problems of the world culture on correlation between determinism and free choice of personality given in his work “Mesnevi”. The author gives the definitions of “determinism”, “freedom of choice”, “freedom of will” reveals the essence of personal responsibility and related to it the problem of encouragement and punishment. He shows the place of this problem in a history of the Muslim world, in particular in legacy of such trends as kadariyye, jabariyye, ashariyye also in the Shariat and Koran.
In his short analysis of history of Muslim ideology the author reveals the peculiarities of the interpretation of this problem in Rumi’s “Mesnevi”, where about 2000 beyts are devoted to its interpretation.
The article characterizes the position and some hesitations of Rumi in his working and analysis of this problem. On the one hand Rumi basing his arguments on Koran, Hadis and logical reasoning proves the presence of freedom of choice and will of a man . On the other hand he notes their relative and conditional nature and their dependness on the God’s will and determinism.
Correlation between freedom and determinism is represented as a manifestation of a freedom of will within the framework of necessity and manifestation of necessity in the strong – willed acts of a man .
In order to resolve the contradiction between these phenomena Mevlevi asserted that a human act a manifestation of the essence and nature of an individual, also activity of the God’s will.
The article is ended with the assertion of Mevlevi about the eternality of the discussion between kadarits and jabarits also impossibility of definite resolution of the problem.
M. M. T. Al – Janabi
(İRAN İSLAMİC REPUBLİC)
An explanation of the personal experience of
Al – Gazali In the transformation into a sufist thinker
The coming of Al – Gazali of the Sufism was not determined by difficult conditions of his life (although such conditions promoted partly). It was caused by the revelation of values of his life and crucial changes in his thought. A – Gazali came to the conclusion that “a life without absolute ideal is looking like a sleep. It is either a death in the image of life, or a life without death”. Such a realization of the tragedy of life experience, search of absolute truth (which A – Gazali found neither in the kelam, nor in philosophy, nor in batiniyye) caused his coming to the Sufism. The coming of such bright personality as Al – Gazali to the Sufism determined the peculiarities of his Sufism cognition of God. It is wellknown that such peculiarities are nothing but expressions of the level of intellectuality of a thinker. This process of the transformation of Al – Gazali was an expression of the definite type of synthesis of historic truths of the Islamic culture and free searches of intellectual creativity. This synthesis had some peculiarities in the creativity of Al – Gazali. His transformation into a Sufism thinker being an expression of ordinary direction of the Islamic culture, was at the same time the organic unity of the theoretical and practical sciences of the Islamic culture (i.e. fikh, kelam, philosophy and the Muslim mysticism).
View on Sufism from philosophical standpoint
Proceeding from commen character and difference between philosophy and Sufism, the author considers the features of religion and philosophy in the Islamic and Christian regions. It is emphasized that while Sufism is based of divine knowledge, the philosophy operates with conclusions that restrict cognitive potentialities of man.
At the same time the author proceeds from the premise that if a man is something whole, indivisible, then his knowledge or universe himself and God, whatever heterogeneous it be, may and what is more, must constitute a single whole. In the process of cognition the philosophy and Sufism come forward as two mutually complementary stages , lower of which is a rationalism of philosophy, higher is an intuitivism of Sufism.
With respect to the problem the position of Christianity different from that of Sufi. According to Christianity, a man who wishes to cognize God must break with nature, for it denies a possibility of reason and belief participation of the cognition, their mutual complementariness. Strict delimitation of reason and belief spheres deprived the western culture, influenced by Christianity, of unity and integrity. Such a duality told on views of man too. According to Sufism , a man in himself is not merely something whole he is united with nature, universe, the most high and co participant to them essentially. Thus. Sufism is none other than knowledge with harmonious system and integrity.
I. A. Agayev
The Nizari ’s Ismaili’s and their influence
upon spiritual life of the epoch
For the first time in one scientifical context the author analizes in detailes the history and Philosophy of Nizari’s Ismailism describes it’s deep and prominent effects and influences upon cultural like of late medieval epoch. The author proceeds from the point of view on Ismailis not like the one of heresies of its time, which has been confronting main postulates of Islam. Otherwise, he presents them as one of the greatest belief teachers who managed crystallize and strengthen many important and basic Islamic beliefes from inside, on the Azerbaijan national tradition is concretely expanded.
As well, for the first time, author describes and analizes in particular, such historical events of Ismaili Nizari as the “Yaum al-Kiyama” the day of Resurrection - the mystical act of “liberation the Time” . This event took place on August 8 1164. As well, such important concepts of Ismaili philosophical teaching are presented as the “Teaching of Ta’alim” – the spiritual guidness, tended to liberate in Ismaili adept his highest spiritual powers. As well, the character and reasons of mutual influences and interactions between Sufism and Ismailism is expanded. It is emphasized that, according to new postmedieval tendencies the both spiritual movements - Ismailism and Sufism, have represented the main spiritual stream of the Time. In this context, it is specially examines how certain Ismaili cosmological and ethical ideas could so actively and fruitfully affect a spiritual activities of Nizami, Fizouli, Shabustaru and many other great azeri – Turkic poets and thinkers of the time.
F. F. Faracova
Interpretation of the concept of “substance” in
the medieval Eastern philosophy
(the Muslim region, X – XIII centuries)
The problem of “substance” is one the significant philosophical problems, since it plays an essential role in the system of philosophical concepts and in the definition of main world outlook principles of philosophical theories.
The author analyses doctrines about substance of representatives of different philosophical and religious-philosophical directions. According to the study of some sources and scientific literature there were different interpretations of the concept of substance in the Muslim East in the X-XIII centuries. Mutakallims, mutazillits and asharits considered atoms as the primary basis of the world. However, all diversity of phenomena of the being and the existence of atoms were connected with the will and desire of God. Only one representative of mutazillis An – Nazzam explained the origin, formation of a concrete essence by infinite divisibillty of atoms and their diverse combination. Abu – Bakr ar – Razi, Abdullah Khorezmi developed their atomistic doctrines in correspondence to the ancient tradition. Biruni elaborated a materialist interpretation of the concept of substance. Representatives of “The Society of pure brothers” and Shihabeddin Suhraverdi, the founder of the philosophy of “Ishrakiyye” submitted the dualist interpretation of the problem of substance. Quite differentiated interpretation of the concept of substance was elaborated in the pantheist philosophy, in particular in the philosophy of Khallaj, Ayn al – Kuzat, Ibn – Arabi, Shams Tabrizi, Rumi and others. According to them the God’s essence is the substantial basis of the world, and diversity of the material world is the external manifestation of this essence. Arabiclingual peripatetics accepting the philosophy of Aristotle developed his doctrine about substance.
Diversity of the interpretations of substance was a confirmation of high level of the intellectual potential and philosophical culture of the region.