Problems of Oriental Philosophy
Journal Oriental philosophy - 1996


International Journal of "Problems of Oriental Philosophy"

ISSN: 2219-7370

Publisher: Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS)

and Institute Philosophy and Law (IPL) of ANAS

IF(Impact Factor): 0 / 2012


Editor: Dr. Zumrud Kuluzade

Assistant Editor: Phd.Rahil Najafov




Journal of Problems of Oriental Philosophy. Vol.17. (1) 1996(JOPh Journal)






Parallel with problems ontological, gnoseological, etc., character traditional for philosophical research, the Editorial considers it advisable to publish by the following topics.

  1. Methodical and ethic problems of philosophy and history of philosophy study.
  2. Necessity for relative unification of scientific-categorical apparatus of culturology and philosophy.
  3. Conceptions of “Philosophy” and “History of Philosophy”.
  4. Ethno genesis, ethno culture, ethno philosophy. Subject-matter and content of conceptions “ethnic philosophy”, “regional philosophy”,” philosophy of region of Islamic culture”.
  5. Correlations between regional philosophy and world philosophy and philosophy of separate ethnics.
  6. Relations between different regional cultures and in particular, philosophy of different regions.
  7. Comparative structural-typological investigation of the philosophy of different regions.(theoretical and concrete-historical aspects).
  8. “West-East” in philosophy (in historical aspect and present day state).
  9. Ancient period in the development of philosophical views of the peoples of Turkic-Language region.
  10. Ancient period in the development of philosophical views of the peoples of Persian-language region.
  11. Ancient period in the development of philosophical views of the peoples of Arabian-language region.
  12. Role of archaeological investigations in the reconstruction of philosophical views of the region in older times.
  13. Philosophical views of shamanism.
  14. Study of common roots in the philosophy of Turkic-language, Persian-language, and Arabian-language peoples (Statement of problems, means of solution).
  15. Reflection of social-ethnic and cultural development of the countries of Islamic region of the East on the philosophy (in different epochs and in separate countries).
  16. Basic stages in the development of urban civilization and connection of this development with the development of culture and philosophy in the Islamic cultural region.
  17. Specificity of urban civilization of Turkic-language region and its reflection in the regional philosophy.
  18. On development of culture and philosophy in the Islamic region in the period of Mongol rule.
  19. Relationships of Mythology, religion, science, art, music and philosophy.
  20. Specificity of Islam as religion and reflection of this specificity in the culture and in particular philosophy of Islamic region.
  21. Reflection of multi religiousness of the Islamic region on the specificity of regional philosophy development, in particular, that of philosophy of separate trends.
  22. Comparative analysis of ethic and philosophic views in Hinduism, Christianity and Islam (the general and the special).
  23. Correlation between philosophy and theosophy in the Islamic cultural region.
  24. Form of humanism reflection in the philosophy of Islamic region.
  25. Philosophy of Eastern (region of Islamic culture) Renaissance, Enlightenment, Romanticism, etc. In the light of the history of universal philosophy (in comparison with West).
  26.  Philosophy of anti-religious and anti-orthodoxly trends in the Islamic culture region.
  27. Pantheism in philosophical thought of the West and the East.
  28. On the philosophical trends in the Islamic cultural region in the XIX-XX centuries.
  29. Ideological trends of the Islamic region in Europe and America in the XIX-XX centuries. Philosophical aspects of these trends and relation to religion in modern epoch.
  30. Comparative study of mysticism in medieval and contemporary philosophy of the East and West.
  31. Role of philosophical traditions in the development of the philosophy of the Islamic culture region.
  32. Relations of modem Eastern Western philosophy with various religions; the general and the special in these relations.
  33. Relations (history and modernity) between the philosophy of the Islamic cultural region and the philosophy of the Far East (China, Japan), India.
  34. Peculiarities of present-day philosophy of the former USSR Islamic region peoples. Perspectives of the development of this philosophy.
  35. Report on research on the field of history and contemporary philosophy of the peoples of the Islamic cultural region.
  36. Relationships of science, religion and philosophy at present (General statement of the problem and its solution case of separate people’s culture).
  37. Philosophy of the Islamic cultural region in the scientific literature of Europe, USA, former USSR and so on (information and scientific-critical analysis).
  38. European, American, Far-eastern philosophy in the scientific literature of the Islamic cultural region (information and scientific critical analysis).


We ask you to send your ideas and supplements over proposed problem bank  at the journals address.





         The Journal and Its Problems

   The article motivates the necessity of setting up the Journal, the first periodical in the world science to deal chiefly with the solution of major philosophical issues of the Islamic region and, in the first place, with undeveloped and debatable ones.

  A special place is assumed to assign to well-reasoned analysis of biased negative presentations and assessment of regional philosophy and culture as a whole, and the philosophy of the peoples of the former USSR in particular, since manifestations of tendentiousness had specific features here.

  The Journal is orientated towards an establishment of scientific contacts between culturologists and, first of all, philosophers-orientalists of the world. Guided by scientific potentialities of the latter, the Editorial Board hopes to improve the present “Problem bank” which contains a list of the most pressing scientific, political and moral problems to be solved by the investigators of the regional philosophy. At the same time, the Editorial Board is going to chart the prospects for further investigations when solving raised problems.

  The Article also substantiates the need for studying regional levels of culture, determines content and scope of the notions such as “philosophy of the Islamic region”, “ethnos” and ethno culture”, reveals interconnection of discrepant interpretations of the given categories in scientific literature with the so called “struggle for cultural heritage “, problem of respect for national dignity, their editorial connection with various forms of ethnic enmity and conflicts, in particular, references to abusive treatment of the culture of the former Soviet East in the booklet by A.L.Soljenitsyn entitled “How should we arrange Russian”.

  One often depreciates the significance and value of the philosophy of the whole regions, including Islamic one, in terms of the growth of separatist trends in science, proceeding from far-fetched conceptions on “super-specificity” and contraposition of regional cultures.

  The Journals purpose is to give investigators of the philosophy of the  Islamic region an opportunity for four times a year declare all over the world of their understanding of the problems of culture and philosophy of their region as an integral pant of single world philosophy and culture.


           A.H. Kasimjanov, Y.H. Myamesheva

           Plurality of Philosophical Thinking

 The Article deals with essential and formal differentiation of philosophical thinking and spiritual culture of the West and East. It is maintained that for the European trend is typical to strive for hierarchization and systematization of thought and culture, when the West is described as “a country of bound and finite” and the East as “a country of boundless and infinite” when the intellectual  process occurs, as a rule, on the verge of evident and non-evident. Hence, it follows the differences of ways and methods of knowledge and wisdom conveyance. Showing the singularity of the cultures of the West and East, the authors emphasize the importance of the Eastern (Chinese, Indian) cultural heritage in the development of the Western culture.

The singularity of cultures implies their uniqueness, so one should strive

Neither for synthesis of average arithmetical West and East, nor for leveling of the thinking and culture specificity of separate peoples and regions.

The West and East, are two form of existence of single substance of life, and they are self-subsistent only in their unity.




  An Impact of The Philosophy on The Turkish Philosophical Thought

 An impact of the Western philosophical thought on spiritual culture of

Turkey is traced on the basis of the study of the Turkish philosophy history of the

XIX-XX centuries.

The Article notes that, as result of the economic and political crisis, there is a considerable intensification of ideological life, formation and wide development of various, inner heterogeneous philosophical trends and reesimation of spiritual values change of attitude towards the past culture, linked with the strengthening of religious ideology. At that period the Turkish intelligentsia displays special interest in the Western philosophy-towards the countries which achieved high progress thus hoping to embark the path of revival of Ottoman society İn the light of these trends and thanks to the attempts of the Turkish youth who were educated in European countries, the impact of the Western (European and American) philosophy on the  culture of the Turkey considerably increased.

  The author reports on prevalence of capitalism, materialism, romanticism, Freudism, idealistic philosophy of Schelling and Fichte, philosophy of Enlightenment, atheism, naturalism, scientism, neopoitivism, Marxism, spiritualism.

At present, equally with enthusiasm for American and European philosophy, there are ends towards reconprehension of the foundations of these doctrines, attempts to synthesize them with historical and Islamic roots of the Turkish philosophical and social thought.



                              M.M. Khairullayev

  On Major Problems Of Socio-philosofical Thought O The Problems Of Central Asia.

  Rating upon the history of philosophy of Central Asiatic peoples and rich experience of investigations on philosophy, the author in a generalized form reveals the essence of major problems of this philosophy, in particular, ontological (doctrine of being, possible and necessary realities, cosmic and active reason, matter, its structure and forms of existence, etc.), logic - gnoseologycal (correlation of object and subject, sensual and rational cognition, kinds of nations, etc), philosophical analysis of knowledge (correlation of philosophical, concrete-scientific and theological knowledge, doctrine of dual truth) as well as social philosophy, ethics, politics.

  Questions of impact of Central Asiatic philosophy on West European philosophy, common character of these differently regional philosophies are also dwelt on.

  Besides, the Article investigates conceptual errors committed in the Soviet period when studying regional philosophy; these errors also affected the on assessment of Sufism, nakhshbandism, interrelation of philosophy and religion; at the same assessment time it reasonably refutes biased subjective positions of separate investigations which denied the philosophy of Central Asiatic peoples on the whole.



           Belief and Knowledge İn The İslamic Tradition

  The analysis of the problem is represented by the paragraphs “Category of İman in Koran” and “Conception of Ilm in Koran”.

  Consideration of İman (belief) in Koran is prefaced with statement and analysis of debatable category and conception of al-jahilliyya in the world Orientalists. The author shows the prejudice of stereotypes in research literature on Arabs as “wild nomads” who do not genetically perceive other civilizations, on al-jahiliyya as an intellectual vacuum, pointing out that radical intellectual over-turn introduced by Koran is combined with traditionalism.

  The Article reveals many-sided character of Iman category, is connection with main doctrines of Islam, correlation of ”din” (religion), “amal” (action) and kufr (unbelief) phenomena, emphasizes the last of rigid dogmatization in the postulates of belief and unbelief in Islam. Ilm (knowledge, comprehension) conception in Islam is notable for principal novelty in comparison with theoretically unshared “knowledge» of al-jahiliyya, incorporated into other conceptions of Koran and takes a central place in it as integral property of God: knowledge in Koran is expressed by ninety nine attributive divine names.

  Koran adheres to the idea of two essentially different and simultaneously interrelated levels of knowledge$ divine and human, the latter is divided, into religious and secular ones. A relation of Ilm conception with ethic system of Islam, Islamic civilization, in particular, with philosophy and sciences, is established.





  The Main Stages of Prerevolutionary Tatar Social and Philosophical

  Thought Development

   The Article presents a generalized review of more than thousand-year history of Tatar social and philosophical thought development, three main stages of it.

  The first stage ( X-XVIII centuries) in the social and philosophical thought is characterized by dominating part of Islamic ideology in terms of secular character of the content; by syncretism; by orientation towards the solution of moral ethic problems and considerable impact of Sufism.

  The second stage (late XVIII-the last decade of the  XIX  century) is typical for the world outlook orientations: putting in the forefront of philosophical and theological problems regarded in the light of rationalism; formation and of Enlightenment ideology and its relation with Tatars national consciousness formation; concentration of attention on human problems upholding of his right to free development as personality.

  The third stage (late XIX- first decades of the XX century) is a period of emergence and development of various trends of social thought, both conservative and progressive character. The right wing presented itself in Kadimists who tried to preserve old foundations and spiritual values. There were three development trends in the left wing: Muslim reformer, Enlightenment-reformer and revolutionary-democratic, Contradictory interaction of these trends in their struggle against Kadimism determined the major content of Tatar socio-philosophical thought on the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.




  Y.M. Pochta

  An impact of value guidelines of European consciousness on the explanation of  Arab Muslim society and its philosophy (the case philosophy of history by Hegel)

    Hegel’s explanation of the history of society (changing civilizations) within the bounds of East-West relations considerably affected the methodology of the world orientalism and up to now, there remains a great importance of Hegel’s Europocentric assessment of spiritual culture of the Oriental Peoples.

  Pointing out that a man as manifestation of spiritual substance is rational and hence there is a possibility for all persons to be equal, Hegel at the same time asserted that natural and climatic conditions of certain countries might impede the development of spirit and, consequently, partially or fully exclude these peoples of the world history. According to Hegel, the true arena of human history is Europe and the absolute true religion is Christianity. At the same time, Hegel qualifies the emergence of Islamic religion, as well as the philosophy of Muslim peoples, not as an independent stage of the spirit development, i.e. of world history. He is convinced that Muslims only worked out the rational metaphysics and    formal logic, contributed to the outward maintenance and further spreading of Greek philosophy in the West and that” their philosophy makes no up specular stage in the course of philosophy development”, that they stopped in their development and ceased to exist for world history.

  The biased judgments of Hegel concerning culture history of Arab Muslims society are caused by the starting-point of his history (Europocentric, apology of existing society, understanding of human history as a process of a Christian civilization formation).




                    Why mysticism?

   Consisting of five relatively independent fragments, the Article attempts to analyze rather complicated and multiform historical phenomenon mysticism.

  A special attention is paid to the practice of intuitive individual knowledge learning, possibility of the use of mystical principles of cognition in contemporary gnoseology.

  Investigation of modern difficulties in the scientific cognition leads to the understanding of philosophy role as a particular West-European type of world outlook which, parallel with positive, had negative impact: in one-sided orientation of science towards pure rationalism. Unacceptability of separate trends of mysticism, for example, Sufism, into the philosophical world outlook is also shown in the light of rationalism.

  “East-West” opposition is also considered in the same manner, its incorrect statement being demonstrated in some conceptual models. The practice of mysticism, etc. varieties, such as kabbala, Sufism, Christian ascetism, daosism, ect. Clearly demonstrated that “Eastern thinking», successfully developed in the West, manifested itself in a number of independent forms of intellectual activity.

  A special place in the Article is assigned to the difference between so-called “Western” and “Eastern” styles of cognition; some aspects of meditation practice are also hacked.

  Mysticism is appraised as a phenomenon of culture contributing to the presentation of veritable “nature” of man.




   New research works and problems, Z.A.Kulizades  review of “Islam, Encyclopedic Dictionary”, Moscow, “Nauka”, 1991, contains a number of critical remarks about the “Encyclopedic Dictionary” and offers to discuss it on the pages of the Journal.